This presentation principally examines the concepts of "biosphere" and "noosphere" following an analysis of the scientific papers of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, the Jesuit geologist, paleontologist and paleo-anthropologist who is also considered the founder of the modern geology and paleontology of the Chinese subcontinent. Teilhard de Chardin regarded evolution as being characterized not only by general and random movements but as a moving towards: of matter towards complexity and life and of life towards complexity and an increase of brain. From this perspective, Teilhard de Chardin carried out extensive investigations into parallelisms and canalizations in evolution. He also proposed, together with V. Vernadskij and E. Le Roy, the term "noosphere" to describe the totality of thinking beings and of their relationships. Variants of such ways of thinking about the complex systems of earth, such as the Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock, have become highly influential today, not least in modern environmentalism. As such, the work of Teilhard de Chardin can be considered as an example of a dialogue between science and theology with far-reaching cultural consequences.